Rhetorical Devices: Schemes

Posted: March 19, 2014 in Rhetorical Analysis, Writing Advice
Tags: , , ,

Parallelism

Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences are equal in importance. Parallelism also adds balance and rhythm and, most importantly, clarity to the sentence.

  • Ferocious dragons breathing fire and wicked sorcerers casting their spells do their harm by night in the Forest of Darkness.
  • I have always sought but seldom obtained a parking space near the door.
  • Singing a song or writing a poem is joyous.

Antithesis

Juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas (often, although not always, in parallel structure). Human beings are inveterate systematizers and categorizers, so the mind has a natural love for antithesis, which creates a definite and systematic relationship between ideas

  • It has been my experience that folks who have no vices have very few virtues.
  • It can’t be wrong if it feels so right.
  • Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.
  • That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind

Climax

Arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of ascending power, weight, or importance. In addition to arranging sentences or groups of short ideas in climactic order, you generally should also arrange the large sections of ideas in your papers climatically. Always begin with a point or proof substantial enough to generate interest, and then continue with ideas of increasing importance. That way your argument gets stronger as it moves along, and every point hits harder than the previous one.

  • Miss America was not so much interested in serving herself as she was eager to serve her family, her community, and her nation.
  •  The concerto was applauded at the house of Baron von Schnooty, it was praised highly at court, it was voted best concerto of the year by the Academy, it was considered by Mozart the highlight of his career, and it has become known today as the best concerto in the world.

Anastrophe

Yoda-speak that departs from normal word order for the sake of emphasis.

  • The helmsman steered; the ship moved on; yet never a breeze up blew.
  • Enter the forest primeval.

Asyndeton

Leaving out conjunctions between clauses, often resulting in a hurried rhythm or vehement effect.

  • On his return he received medals, honors, treasures, titles, fame.
  • I came; I saw; I conquered.
  • We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardships, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
  • But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground.

Polysyndeton

Adding additional conjunctions to slow tempo or rhythm.

  • They read and studied and wrote and drilled. I laughed and played and talked and flunked.
  • We have not power, nor influence, nor money, nor authority; but a willingness to persevere, and the hope that we shall conquer soon

Chiasmus

The repetition of ideas in inverted order (a-b-b-a) to make an X.

  • Polished in courts and hardened in the field. Renowned for conquest, and in council skilled.
  • He labors without complaining and without bragging rests.
  • Judge not, lest ye be judged.

Ellipsis

Omission of a word or short phrase easily understood in context.

  • The average person thinks he isn’t.
  • John forgives Mary and Mary, John.
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